Thursday, May 21, 2020

Macbeth The Effects of Guilt Essay - 940 Words

Macbeth, a tragedy written by William Shakespeare and edited by Maynard Mack and Robert Boynton, displays the many ways in which guilt manifests itself and the effects it has on its victims. Throughout the play, characters including Lady Macbeth are deeply affected by guilt in ways they had never expected. Macbeth takes its audience on a journey through the process in which guilty gradually eats away at Lady Macbeth and forces her to do what she thinks is best. Though Lady Macbeth may have initially seemed unaffected by the murders she had been involved in, her desires eventually faded and were replaced with an invincible feeling of guilt which eventually took her life. An overpowering emotion, guilt once lay†¦show more content†¦Lady Macbeth says, â€Å"These deeds must not be thought after these ways; so, it will make us mad† (II.ii.41-42), suggesting that the guilty party should dust off their shoulders and ignore the matter at hand, the crime they had committed, b ecause if they dwelled on their crimes too much, they would begin to feel guilt, the unconquerable emotion. Despite the fact that Lady Macbeth’s words seem to simply mean â€Å"feel no remorse†, there is hidden foreshadowing. Lady Macbeth uses the word â€Å"will† to describe the attack of anger and guilt towards one’s action. The word â€Å"will† seems to mean that Lady Macbeth is not saying guilt may or may not plague her, but instead she is suggesting that it very well will attack her and she will be overwhelmed by this feeling and soon enraged by it. Lady Macbeth may become so enraged that she takes action and goes to reckless measures to cure herself of the indomitable sentiment of guilt. Lady Macbeth, a once strong and persuasive woman, used the elimination of guilt from those who surround her as a way of coping with her own guilt and attempting to stop it before it reached her. From time to time, characters such as Macbeth, who were involved in many of the murders that occurred throughout the play, began to feel repentant over their actions but were quickly persuaded that guilt was not what they were feelingShow MoreRelatedEffects of Guilt in Macbeth776 Words   |  4 PagesZirlott Paul Broussard English IV H October 26, 2011 Effects of Guilt in Macbeth The psychological effects of guilt are vividly depicted in Macbeth and cloud the mindset of characters throughout the play. In much of Macbeth, a sense of guilt Macbeth and Lady Macbeth both possess leads them to take actions that ultimately lead to their downfall. It is this sense of guilt that drives them both mad. Guilt plays a large part in influencing Macbeth and his wife act after they have committed their crimesRead MoreThe Effect of Guilt and Evil in Macbeth764 Words   |  4 Pages‘The play, Macbeth, explores the effects of guilt and evil.’ Discuss. William Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth, explores many different themes including loyalty, betrayal, ambition but is it the powerful theme of evil and the consequent guilt that have the most devastating effects on the play’s protagonist, Macbeth and his loyal wife. Shakespeare’s language and imagery constantly reinforce the theme of evil. The opening scene introduces the themes of evil and disorder as the three powerful hagsRead MoreShakespeares Novel Macbeth1577 Words   |  7 Pagesworld be like if no one felt guilt? If no one ever caught caught for their crimes? In Shakespeares novel, Macbeth, the main characters commit crimes driven by their ambition. After committing the first crime Macbeth, the main antagonist is overwhelmed with guilt. His wife, Lady Macbeth plotted the first crime and was the main force pushing Macbeth to kill. In the end Macbeth is charged with the truth and Lady Macbeth kills herself both brought down equally from guilt. Guilt and fear of being found outRead MoreMacbeth, By William Shakespeare1320 Words   |  6 PagesThe oxford dictionary definition of guilt, 1, the fact of having committed a specified or implied offence or crime, 1.1, a feeling of having committed wrong or failed in obligation. In Macbeth w ritten by William Shakespeare, Macbeth, the titular character and his wife Lady Macbeth kill the King in order to become King and Queen themselves, this came with consequences which are still relevant in society today. The guilt they felt and the relevance to sleeplessness are common topics almost four hundredRead MoreThe Classification Of Water Imagery Present Throughout Shakespeare s Macbeth Essay1134 Words   |  5 PagesShakespeare is renowned for his vividly descriptive, original, and pioneering use of imagery in many of his plays, but their effect on the audience’s understanding of his plays is most obvious in the tragedies, particularly in Macbeth. Images in Shakespeare’s works are used, according to Shakespeare critic G. Wilson Knight, to craft a play’s â€Å"atmosphere† or the permeating tone or mood of a play (3). However, this attitude between images and atmosphere creates an environment where different definitionsRead MoreThe Blood Motif Of M acbeth By William Shakespeare786 Words   |  4 PagesMacbeth Essay William Shakespeare dramatic play has many suitable examples of imagery, mainly the imagery of blood. The imagery of blood is very important in this play because it symbolizes guilt. Macbeth got too greedy and wanted more power, which led him to murder innocent people in order for him to keep his throne. In The Tragedy of Macbeth, William Shakespeare utilizes the blood motif to demonstrate the continuous feelings of guilt felt by Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and to distinguish the changesRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1495 Words   |  6 Pages X. In The Tragedy of Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the characterization of Macbeth to convey the corrosive effects of evil on a person’s psychological state. This presentation of Macbeth suggests that while humanity is inherently good, the drastic effects of evil actions can wreak havoc upon a person’s reasoning skills and cause one to behave in a volatile manner. Macbeth’s internal struggle before committing the act of killing Duncan displays the detrimental effects of the initial thoughts of evilRead MoreEssay on bloodmac Importance of Blood in Shakespeares Macbeth1331 Words   |  6 PagesImportance of Blood in Macbeth  Ã‚        Ã‚   In Shakespeares tragic play Macbeth, the symbol of blood is an important device.   The fundamental physical notion of blood is a stark sign of illness or mishap that all humans must share.   Within Macbeth the imagery of blood is used over and over again and it is developed by Shakespeare until it becomes not only a dominating theme but wholly integrated within the plot.    Perhaps the best way to show how the symbol of blood changes throughoutRead MoreMacbeth Guilt Essay1135 Words   |  5 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s Macbeth is a tragedy in which the plot evolves in great accordance to the guilt that the individual characters feel. The guilt starts with the planning and execution of the murder of King Duncan. To this event Lady Macbeth and Macbeth react in different ways. They both become guilty in some way or another but the guilt they feel is comprised of different reasons. It is due to their differences in character that they react in the ways they do. While it might not seem like both

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Future Of Crime The United States Of America Essay

Future of Crime Investigation in United States of America Writer’s Name Institution’s Name Future of Crime Investigation in United States of America Crime Investigation is an important aspect of the law enforcement in any country. It is considered as the most vital aspect of legal system as both the law and order as well as justice system is dependent over the quality of crime investigation in the country. Not only that. There are several aspects related directly or indirectly with the phenomenon of crime investigation. An example of that may include the fact that a strong criminal investigation system helps prevail a sense of justice in the country which in turn reduce the rate of crime owing to fear of getting caught. The lower crime rate is directly related with the perception of stability in the country as well as the sense of government control over its jurisdiction. This in turns bring a healthy social and economic atmosphere in the country that leads to increased foreign direct investments. There is no denial of the fact that foreign investment has a direct link with the stability of a country. Mao Zedong once said â€Å"Investigation may be likened to the long months of pregnancy, and solving a problem to the day of birth. To investigate a problem is, indeed, to solve it (Zeodang, 2015).† Indeed the strength of criminal investigation system highly depends on the rate of crimes being solved. Quality of prosecution is highly dependent over the strength ofShow MoreRelatedNational Security Vs. Digital Privacy1735 Words   |  7 PagesIn regards to the increasing crime and terrorism rates in America, the optimal solution thus far is enhancing security throughout the nation. By doing so, policies, procedures, and protocols would be amended for the sole purpose of protecting the country. Such alterations should be made because it prevents crime in a timely, reliable, and successful manner, whilst preserving the fundamental rights of all United States Citizens. In light of the controversy over national security versus digital privacyRead MoreEssay about The Debate Over Gu n Control1274 Words   |  6 PagesIn the United States of America, we as people have certain guaranteed rights, and one of those is the Second Amendment. The Second Amendment states, â€Å"A well-regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.† This amendment has been a crucial issue throughout the history of this country and still continues to be of vital importance today. Today there are several conflicts with this amendment the 1st being a law-abidingRead MoreAmerica s The United States Of America1026 Words   |  5 PagesAmerican’s In The United States of America Focus Immigration The forty-fifth President of The United States of America, Donald John Trump, has made one of his top priorities throughout his campaign, and in the presidency to protect The United States’ boarders from illegal immigration. Thus, â€Å"[Making] America Great Again† (Trump, Donald) by allowing United States citizens to have the opportunity to gain new jobs, and not have illegal crime committed by illegal immigrants with out having consequencesRead MoreBastà ¸y. We All Have An Idea Of How The Future May Look.1320 Words   |  6 PagesBastà ¸y We all have an idea of how the future may look. Hovercraft vehicles, space travel as seen in the Star Wars series, and task driven robots living alongside us. All seemingly exciting advancements, nevertheless this â€Å"future† we imagine is still years away. However, what if that was not the case? People do not often realize how much the world changes around them as they are living their daily lives, but others are not that fortunate. Technology, transportation, and communication have all madeRead MorePoverty Is A Problem Of Poverty1221 Words   |  5 PagesThe topic that I chose to write on is poverty. Poverty has been a problem in our country for a long time. Approximately 47 million of people that lived in the United States of America in the year of 2014 have been living in poverty. This basically means that the poverty rate for the year 2014 was approximately 15 percentage. Furthermore, the year 2014 poverty rate was 2.3 percentage points higher than in the year of 2007, the year before the 2008 recession. 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The Power of the Follower the Arab Spring and Social Media Free Essays

string(54) " implementation of social movements around the world\." THE POWER OF THE FOLLOWER SAND011A MBL 921-S Leadership Assignment II Group Member Student Number Contribution Addison, B. 7078-516-3 100% Bheamadu, A 3285-589-3 100% Deonarain, N 7288-417-7 100% Deshmukh, A 7136-472-2 100% Jooste, D L 7276-682-4 100% Mahura, S 7300-632-7 100% Mavimbela, R 7294-314-9 100% Mnube, M 3326-099-0 100% Singh, Yashin 3667-383-8 100% Nkosi, N 7308-888-9100% Singh, Yeshvir 7308-490-5 100% Thuntsane, E 7294-747-0 100% Mulder, R7303-318-9100% Mkwanazi, S7288-373-1100% EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This assignment delves into the changing socio-dynamic landscape given the growing rate of mobile and IT connectivity as well as the growing number of users on social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Flickr and the like. The recent political uprisings on the African continent have hinted towards the use of social media tools to bring about socio-political change and either directly or indirectly challenge the leadership status quo. We will write a custom essay sample on The Power of the Follower: the Arab Spring and Social Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now Many have refuted the claims of the impact of social media during the uprisings, such as Malcolm Gladwell who dismisses the relevant importance the media, academics and thought leaders have placed on its ability to influence leader behaviour or bring about any meaningful change (www. newyorker. com, 2010). However, the contrary views outweigh Gladwell’s views and, in our opinion, bare consideration. According to Fleishman (2003) â€Å"leadership is an attempt at influencing the activities of followers to willingly cooperate through the communication process toward the attainment of some goals. The traditional view of leadership is its ability to influence follower behaviour. Thus, this assignment aims to explore the role of neo-social dynamics (social media) to influence leader behaviour, i. e. follower upward management of leaders. The assignment begins with a case study to determine social media’s impact in Africa, contextualized but not limited to the Egyptian upris ings. It then proceeds to propose an alternative mind-map developed in assignment 1 and concludes with the development of an HR value proposition to generalize a leadership model for use by organizations. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. The Case Study| 4| | 1. 1 The Purpose of the Study| 4| | 1. 2 Background of the Study| 5| | 1. 3 Significance of the Study| 5| | 1. 4 Research Methodology| 6| | 1. 4. 1 Theoretical Framework| 6| | 1. 4. 2 Data Collection| 7| | 1. 4. 3 Research Hypothesis| 7| | 1. 4. 4 Key Research Questions| 7| | 1. 5 Conclusion| 10| | 1. 6 References| 11| 2. | Integration of the Case study Findings| 12| | 2. 1 Introduction| 12| | 2. 2 Assignment 1: Overview of the Leadership Model| 12| | 2. 3 Leadership Mind Map Recommendation| 14| | 2. 4 Conclusion| 18| 3. | The HR Value Proposition| 19| | 3. 1 Definition| 19| | 3. HR Value Proposition Objectives| 20| | 3. 3 A Systemic HR Mental Model| 20| | 3. 4 Organisation Challenges Proposed| 21| | 3. 5 Business Implications| 22| | 3. 6 T he HR Value Proposition- Application| 22| | 3. 7 Conclusion| 25| | 3. 8 References ( section 2 and 3)| 26| I. THE CASE STUDY 1. 1Purpose of the Study Social media is a popular term to describe a variety of media tools that is suggested to have played an important role in recent political revolutions. In the recent events in North Africa, the role of social media has been best characterized as an enabler, facilitating rallies and galvanizing participants. Despite limited access to the Internet and limited freedom of expression and information, social media penetration is on the increase in Africa. Social networks are spoken of in villages, schools, and fast-growing cities where the middle classes are now demanding access to quick information (Marieme Jamme, 2011). In the mid-1990s, as the use of mobile phones spread in much of the developed world, few thought of Africa as a potential market. Now, with more than 400 million subscribers, its market is larger than North America’s and is growing faster than in any other region. The most common social media tools are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and relatively new social media sites like Diggs and Foursquare. The communication is in the form of status updates and ad hoc statements. While discussion may be limited, the dissemination of information has been seen as the most influential component of the upheavals in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region (uicifd. blogspot. com, 2011). The case study intends to explain the impact of neo-social dynamics on leadership within the context of the recent political uprisings. In doing so we propose three hypotheses: i. Social media creates the leaderless revolution in the digital age. ii. Social Media creates Citizen Journalism – freedom of speech for the oppressed. iii. Social Media accelerates the rate of revolutions. 1. 2 Background of the Study The rate of technological and online communication advances suggest that organizations and governments can no longer suppress the spread of an idea, message, or of news occurring globally. The implication is that if one is able to connect to the Internet and express a view about a situation, then the information will be broadcasted. The recent events in North Africa may signal a way forward for the rest of the continent as technology becomes more easily accessible to more Africans. Calls for socio-political transformation heard on the streets of Tunisia and Cairo were echoed globally, rousing sympathetic support internationally. The revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt are extensively seen as being mobilized, organized, supported and driven through the use of social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter and mobile phone technology which allowed for extensive political expression and rallying against government corruption online and off the ground. . 3Significance of the Study Traditionally, the greatest power that governments have held over their people has been that of information/freedom of speech. The promise that Internet connectivity brings to Africa is that people are now using the abundance of information for oversight of government and more interaction with administrations (J. Gossier, 2008). New communicati on technologies, especially social media via the Internet, have become important resources for the mobilization of collective action and the subsequent creation, organization and implementation of social movements around the world. You read "The Power of the Follower: the Arab Spring and Social Media" in category "Papers" Therefore, the impact of social media on current leadership dynamics requires exploration as the recent public demonstrations of rebellion have been underpinned by suggestions that social media has changed the status quo on how Africans engage and share their views and are no longer being silenced by oppressive leadership with these (social media) tools in hand. 1. 4RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The qualitative case study method is an effective tool for developing an understanding about a particular case, its features, and its impact. According to Stake (1994), â€Å"case study is defined by individual cases, not by the methods of inquiry used. † As such, the goal of case study research is to understand the complexity of a case in the most complete way possible. The richness of data gathered through this method complements the article’s theoretical framework and is required to answer the research questions. This case study will be an exploratory case study which is an attempt to understand what happened within cases by looking beyond descriptive features and studying the surrounding context. (www. capam. com) We categorize the â€Å"Egyptian revolution† in this study as the activities and conditions that led to and defined the anti-government protests that occurred between 25 January and 11 February 2011, ultimately leading to the resignation of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Case researchers examine both common and unique features of a case, with an emphasis on its defining features (Stake, 2005). 2. 4. 1 Theoretical Framework Researchers may study a single case or multiple cases. In multiple case studies, researchers  study cases  in depth individually as well as look across cases for similarities and differences. (RWJF, 2008) Selected Cases a. Social Media in the Arab World (Ghannam, J. , 2011) b. Reasons Social Media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian Revolution (Chebib, N. Sohail, R. 2011) 2. 4. 2 Data Collection The above literature was selected because of its relevance to social media, leadership, information technology and the considerations made regarding the plausible causes of changes in the socio-political landscape. Other secondary sources originating from published online news reports were also analysed. Such secondary data were appropriate for this study because of both the nature of our analysis and the wealth of information available. The qualitative researcher often must use her or his judgment, based on a set of criteria, to decide how much and how long a case should be studied to aid in understanding (Creswell, 1998; Stake, 2005). 2. 4. 3 Research Hypothesis This case study explores the impact of neo-socio (social media) dynamics on leadership in Africa in order to understand contemporary social movements. In pursuit of this goal, the analysis specifically seeks to establish support for the following hypotheses, which will be verified through the case study: I. Social media: creates the leaderless revolution in the digital age. II. Social media: creates Citizen Journalism – freedom of speech for the oppressed. III. Social media accelerates the rate of revolutions. 2. 4. 4 Key Research Questions Three questions have been identified to guide the approach in solving the hypotheses: i. Who led the protests in Egypt? ii. How was information regarding the revolt obtained and circulated? iii. What was the rate of protestor-mobilization and the speed of the outcome? i. Who led the protests in Egypt? To succeed, one of the essential characteristics of the revolution was that there were no leaders. Had there been leaders, it would have been far easier for the existing powers to target them for arrest or worse and thus decapitate the revolution. The absence of leaders made such a response impossible. Instead of a revolutionary leadership – a Che, or a Lenin, or even a Walesa (who was imprisoned many times) – there was no one. The only way to have contained the revolts was bloody crackdown on everyone on the streets – a path that Syria’s Bachir al Asad seems to be following, perhaps imitating the grotesque example of his father, who had the town of Hama flattened after a rebellion there, killing perhaps 20,000. carneross. com) ii. How was information pertaining to the revolt obtained and shared both locally and internationally? The concept of citizen journalism (also known as â€Å"public†, â€Å"participatory†, â€Å"democratic†,†guerrilla†or â€Å"street† journalism) is based upon public citizens playing an act ive role in the process of collecting, reporting, analysing, and disseminating news and information (www. wikipedia. com). New Media technologies such as social networking and media-sharing websites in addition to the increasing prevalence of mobile phones have made citizen journalism more accessible to people worldwide. Due to the availability of technology, citizens can often report breaking news more quickly than traditional media reporters. Notable examples of citizen journalism reporting from major world events are the Arab Spring. Hundreds of Arab activists, writers, and journalists have faced repercussions because of their online activities. (Gannum, 2011) In Egypt, blogger Abdel Kareem Nabil Soliman, known as Kareem Amer, was released in November 2010 after more than four years in prison and alleged torture for his writings that authorities said insulted Islam and defamed Mubarak. Soliman returned to writing his blog shortly after his release. In Syria, 19-year-old Tal al-Mallouhi was said to be the youngest Internet prisoner of conscience in the region and in December 2010 marked her first year in prison, mostly incommunicado, for blogging through poetry about her yearning for freedom of expression. (Gannum, 2011) In Bahrain, a social networking campaign has called for the release of blogger Ali Abdulemam who was imprisoned for allegedly posting â€Å"false news† on his popular site BahrainOnline. org. These are merely three of the scores of Arab Internet users across the region that have faced arrest and incarceration and other repercussions stemming from their online writings. Government challenges and other impediments, notably low broadband high-speed Internet penetration rates as a percentage of population, stand in the way of wider and faster Internet access. According to the Arab Advisors Group, the top three countries in broadband adoption in the region as a percentage of population are the United Arab Emirates at 14 percent, followed by Bahrain at 12 percent, and Qatar at eight percent as of late 2009. (Gannum, 2011) In 2009, the Arab region had 35,000 active blogs and 40,000 by late 2010. Although Egypt’s interior ministry maintains a department of 45 people to monitor Facebook, nearly 5 million Egyptians use the social networking site among 17 million people in the region, including journalists, political leaders, political opposition figures, human rights activists, social activists, entertainers, and royalty who are engaging online in Arabic, English and French. (Gannum, 2011) 111. Rate of protestor mobilization and the speed of the outcome The Egyptian Revolution began on 25 January 2011 and ended on 11February 2011 lasting a total of 18 days, overthrowing the 30 year old rule of Mubarak. The Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia, which ousted president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, lasted 28 days. The Egyptian revolution succeeded in overthrowing the present regime in the shortest time period. (Chebbib and Sohail, 2011) As shown in figure 1 below, the Egyptian revolution is the second shortest revolution in terms of both the number of days it lasted and deaths. FIGURE 1: Days of Revolutions and Deaths that occurred during those Revolutions 1. 3 Conclusion Hypothesis 1: Creates a Leaderless Rebellion The analysis above clearly indicates the lack of emergence of significant leaders in any of the revolutions. Revolutions ignited by passionate people having sufficient common ground and cause can mobilize a revolution which can be steered and sustained(without a leader) towards the achievement of the common goal. Hypothesis 2: Creates Citizen Journalism – freedom of speech for the oppressed There is a symbiotic relationship between social media and citizen journalism on the one hand and traditional media on the other hand, in that they play off each other. Traditional media remains an essential vehicle for reaching a domestic and international audience. n that while social media played a tremendous role, especially in empowering freedom of speech, the impact of citizen journalism was limited and interest in the cause was catapulted only through traditional media coverage. Hypothesis 3: Results in Rapid Mobilization and Swift Results Revolutions can be short and bloody, or slow and peaceful. Each is different. The Egyptian revolution was one of the quickest and swiftest revolutions in history. The facts and figures have indicated that it was also a revolution with one of the lowest death tolls. The deaths and number of days for revolutions historically were far in excess of the Egyptian revolution; were deaths ranged in the 3000’s, the death toll in Egypt was documented at 300. III. REFERENCES 1. Ghannam, J (2011): Social Media in the Arab World 2. Chebib, N. and Sohail, R. (2011): The Reasons Social Media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian Revolution 3. Cogburn, D. and Espinoza-Vasquez F. (2011): From Networked Nominee to Networked Nation. 4. Abroms, L. and Lefebvre, R. (2009): Obama’s Wired Campaign: Lessons for public health communication 5. http://www. carneross. com/blog/2011/04/23/necessity-leaderless-revolutions) 6. Yin, Robert K. , Applications of Case Study Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003a, 2nd 7. edition. 8. Yin, Robert K. , Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003b,3rd edition. 9. Yin, Robert K. , â€Å"The Abridged Version of Case Study Research,† in Leonard Bickman and Debra J. 10. Rog (eds. ), Handbook of Applied Social Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998, pp. 229-259. 11. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin Y. S. Lincoln (Eds. ), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (pp. 443–466). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 12. Glesne, C. (2006) Becoming Qualitative Researchers (3rd ed. . Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 13. Gladwell M. 2010 http://www. newyorker. com/reporting/2010/10/04/101004fa_fact_gladwell(date accessed: 08/07/2012) 14. Bohler-Muller N. and van der Merwe, C. 2011 The potential of social media to influence socio-political change on the African Continent. Africa Institute of South Africa 15. Toni Ahlqvist, Asta Back, Sirkka Heinonen, Minna Halonen, (2010),†Road-mapping the societal transformation potential of social media†, foresight, Vol. 12 Iss: 5 pp. 3 16. Andre-Michel Essoungou, 2010 A social media boom begins in Africa, www. un. org/en/africarenewal/vol24no4/socialmediabom. tml (date accessed 17 July 2012) 17. Gossier, J. 2008 Social Media in Africa, Part 3: Democracy 18. carneross. com/blog/2011/04/23/necessity-leaderless-revolution section 2 2. integration of case study findings – Recommendations for Leaders Assessed in Assignment 1 2. 1 Introduction Emerging from an exploration of the likely impacts of social medial in the context of the political uprisings explored in question 1 above is the indirect threat neo-socio dynamics pose to autocratic governance, as was the case with Hosni Mubarak resigning from presidential office, a mere 18 days after the start of the Egyptian protests (bbc. o. uk 2011). This is in stark contrast to the rise of US President Barr ack Obama, whose 2008 election campaign has been heralded as a win for social media, after a landslide victory which sought to â€Å"convert everyday people into engaged and empowered volunteers, donors and advocates through social media† (Edelman, 2009). Comparing these two leaders on the basis of their style of governance suggests polar opposite styles from democratic to autocratic leadership. Autocratic leaders are those who make unilateral decisions and issue instructions. It is often criticized because it negates relationships between followers that allow decisions to be made by leaders and followers (Ehow. com), whereas democracy advocates inclusive and engaging governance. Following on from the mind map developed in assignment 1, we recommend an alternative leadership approach for the business leaders surveyed. 2. 2Assignment 1: Overview of the Leadership Model In the first leadership assignment, three leaders were surveyed and a leadership mind map was developed. The mind map sought to establish which leadership theory these three leaders subscribed to. As per table 1 (below), all three leaders subscribe to the power and influence theory of leadership, path-goal theory, leader-member exchange theory (LMX), ethical leadership, transformational leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership and authentic leadership. A fundamental leadership trait amongst these surveyed leaders was found to be building and maintaining ‘trust’. THEORY| MS. MABUNDA| MS. GOVIND| MR. SIBEKO| 1. Power Influence| Legitimate (Positional)Expert (Personal)| Reward (Positional)Referent + Expert (Personal)| Reward (Positional)Expert (Personal)| 2. Path-goal| Supportive| Directive| Directive | 3. LMX| High LMX| High LMX| High LMX| 4. Transformational| Yes| Yes| Yes| 5. Ethical| Yes| Yes| Yes| 6. Servant | Yes| No| No| 7. Spiritual| Yes| Yes| Yes| 8. Authentic| Yes| Yes| No| Table 1 Leader Theory Summation of Surveyed Leaders (SAND011A, 2012) Image 1, below, provides a graphic of the leadership mind map that was developed in assignment one. The leaders used a combination of both positional and personal power. The mind map also showcased adaptations to this power and influence model, with various modes of leadership also complementing their primary leadership model. Image [ 1 ] Assignment 1 Leadership Mind Map (SAND011A, 2012) Trust formed the core of their leadership character, without which these leaders believe that their effectiveness to lead would have been severely impeded. We believe this to be true as followers are more inclined to trust people when they understand their leader’s values and observe that their actions are congruent with those values because they can reliably predict how their leaders will act. As such, leaders of high character instil trust. However, given their reliance on positional and personal power, an alternative leadership model is proposed below. 2. 3 Leadership mind-map Recommendation The demands of neo-socio dynamics on leadership is such that leaders must develop a broad range of personal and professional competencies in order to meet the challenges they will inevitably face. Tomorrow’s leaders must stay abreast of the impact of the social media curve. Primary and secondary stakeholders now have access through social media applications to mobilize and either do great harm to an organisation or support its efforts. This was recently illustrated by the Woolworths vs. Frankies dispute. According to Frankies, Woolworths, had sabotaged its attempts to sell its product and claim ownership, by selling an imitation of its drink. Supporters of Frankies mobilized and retaliated on social media spaces such as Facebook and Twitter. The response by Woolworths was plagued by its inability to understand the social media playing field. Instead of engaging followers, Woolworth’s executives chose to release press statements that appeared to only exacerbate the situation. The Advertising Standards Authority ruled in favour of Frankies, and Woolworths was ordered to remove its ‘copy-cat’ version of the soft drink. (Moneyweb, 2012) In a recent Sunday Times Article (Aug, 2012) Woolworths CEO, Ian Moir notes that the company was surprised at how quickly outrage was spread in the Frankie’s soft drink saga. In response to his own leadership displayed during the communication crisis, he stated that it (the social media outrage) was a problem within an hour which made it difficult to manage(C. Barron, 2012). It is safe to conclude that had Woolworth’s leadership endorsed a different response, strengthened its stakeholder engagement and understood the immediate impact of social networking, they would have adopted an alternative approach to engaging their stakeholders. i. Authentic-Transformational Leadership The case study (in section 1) and the preceding Woolworths example highlights the need for ‘open leadership’. According to Charlene li (2011) â€Å"By embracing social media, leaders can transform their organizations to become more effective, decisive, and ultimately more profitable in this new era of openness in the marketplace. Whilst no model and no list of leadership behaviours or competencies can fully capture all the critical components of stakeholder management; our group has selected the prescriptive, authentic-transformational leadership model, for leaders to align themselves to. Transformational leadership describes a leader who motivates followers to pe rformance beyond expectations, but has often been attacked for its potential to be abused. Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) point out that the ethics of transformational leadership have been challenged. For example, transformational leaders: (1) can use impression management behaviours that pave the way to immoral behaviour (Snyder,1987) and (2) manipulate followers into losing more than they gain (White Wooten, 1986). To mitigate these shortcomings, an additional form of leadership has been proposed to complement transformational leadership i. e. authentic leadership (Nichols, Thomas W. , 2008). Authentic leadership is an over-arching concept that aims to include transformational leadership and all positive forms of leadership (Avolio and Gardner 2005). At the heart of authentic leadership is the concept of ethicality. The concept of authenticity may contribute to the transformational leadership paradigm, producing an ideal form of leadership. Whilst many pseudo-transformational leaders are able to exert control over their followers, their lack of character and ethical behaviour ultimately bring harm to their followers. By acting on a core set of benevolent values, authentic transformational leaders, bring out the best in their followers and spur them on to do great things for society. ii. Behaviour of Authentic-Transformational Leaders Ethics are a basic component of authentic transformational leadership. Image 2 (below), demonstrates that these kinds of leaders engage in: * Idealized influence:   Serving as examples of excellence and character; creating a climate of high standards for task performance and ethical choices. * Inspirational motivation:   Developing and communicating an ambitious, exciting and morally good vision for the group to achieve; involving followers, empowering them and encouraging their development. * Intellectual stimulation:   Fostering open discussion of the vision, its implementation and encouraging new ideas from their followers without criticizing them publicly for their mistakes. Individualized consideration:   Demonstrating genuine concern for followers’ development; provide coaching and mentoring and rewarding followers for creativity and innovation. Image 2 Transformational Leadership Model (Management Study Guide, 2009) iii. Advantages of Authentic Transformational Leaders The advantages become apparent when demonstrating ethical behav iour and personal character while performing the four types of leadership behaviours in Image 1. Many researchers have proposed outcomes relating to authentic, transformational, ethical, and charismatic behaviours. These include trust (Robinson, 1996), organizational commitment (Conger, 1999), satisfaction (George Jones, 1997), performance (Howell Avolio, 1993) and organizational citizenship behaviour (Gardner Schermerhorn, 2004). Additionally, the above authors suggest that: * These leaders develop higher levels of self-awareness. * They lead followers through personal development and organizational change. * They are able to persuade them to step out of their comfort zones, take a leap of faith and follow their leaders into the unknown. These also support a recent HBR discussion amongst Harvard’s leadership academia, who advocate the need for an increased level of self-awareness amongst business leaders, effective diversity management and forging greater partnerships with ALL stakeholders, both consumers and suppliers alike in the age of a more connected and socially (pro) active business environment. 2. 4Conclusion Authentic-transformational leaders are those leaders who are able to intellectually stimulate, inspirationally motivate and ideally influence their followers in an ethical manner. They are transparent in their dealings and ethical in their actions and it is their authenticity that removes the potential for them to abuse this leadership style. (Bass and Steidlmeier(1999). section 3 THE HR VALUE PROPOSITION-recommendations to mitigate the implications of the case study findings through the use of hr value propositions 3. HR Value Proposition 3. 1 Definition Human Resource, â€Å"HR†, professionals add value when their work aids an organization to achieve its goals. It is not the design of a program or declaration of policy that matters the most, but what recipients gain from these actions (Success360degree. com). In a world of increasingly scarce resources, activities that fail to add value are not worth pursuing. The HR value proposition means that HR practices, departments and professionals produce positive outcomes for key stakeholders – employees, line managers, customers, and investors. (Amerin, 2005) According to David Ulrich (2005) HR needs to be able to show how their activities create value for key stakeholders. He asserts that HR must have a direct line of sight to the market place such as the customers who buy products and services and to the shareholders who provide capital and that HR must be framed as a source of competitive advantage. He states that ultimately HR professionals need to be able to spell out how they provide a unique and powerful perspective of the linkages between employee commitment, customer attitudes and investor returns. (Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2005) The role of a leader in an organisation is to lead change, lead transformation, lead teams and lead engagement. This process is often a learning on the part of the leader. For this reason, leadership branding is often part of the HR value proposition due to the fact that HR is the custodian of learning and development within an organisation. . 2HR Value Proposition Objectives * HR needs to be able to show how their activities create value for key stakeholders (i. e. the business, customers, employees, investors) * HR must have a direct line of sight to the market place such as the customers who buy products and services and to the shareholders who provide capital (a suggestion of a strong market orientation). * HR professionals m ust align practices with the requirements of internal and external stakeholders (operating in a silo is no longer suitable). HR professionals must acquire the personal knowledge and skills necessary to link HR activity to stakeholder value. * HR professionals need to be able to spell out how they provide a unique and powerful perspective of the linkages between employee commitment, customer attitudes and investor returns. 3. 3 A Systemic HR Mental Model HR needs to frame a new mental model that will make others take notice of and acknowledge the profound and sustainable benefits HR brings to organisations in the new economy. Such a mental model must form the strategic framework that provides HR professionals with the evidence that HR is truly adding value to key stakeholders. Once developed, a systemic HR mental model will provide the strategic framework that enables HR professionals to make significant and tangible contributions to business performance. For instance, HR professionals will be able to use these models to economically justify their initiatives, advise where the business is at risk, highlight opportunities to continually improve performance and most importantly, show how they add to stakeholder value. This conclave will provide a platform where eminent HR professionals will discuss the issues that organizations need to handle in order to transform the role of HR and aid organizations to gain and sustain competitive advantage. (www. ksom. ac. in) The HR Value Proposition, which was developed by Dave Ulrich in 2005,expressesfivekey elements for the value creation activities of HR, namely: 1. Knowing external business realities 2. Serving Internal and External Stakeholders 3. Creating HR Best Practices . Building HR Resources 5. Ensuring HR Professionalism Figure 1 HR Value Proposition Template (D. Ulrich 2005) 3. 4ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES PROPOSED The HR Value proposition mind map (Table 1) speaks to challenges organisations may be facing. Social media connectivity and activism can impact business relations both internally (employee relations) and externally (customer relations). We therefore propose two examples of this for a generic Company X: 1. Employees who are dissatisfied wi th utocratic, heavy-handed leadership within an organisation; and 2. customer online queries or complaints are being sluggishly attended to, resulting in poor customer service levels. 3. 5Business Implications 1. Employees could take to social media and discuss amongst themselves their dissatisfaction with their leaders resulting in lower levels of staff morale, productivity and insubordination (borne out of frustration and on-going discussions in and amongst disgruntled employees). The recent Marikana Mining tragedy, although still under investigation, could potentially point toward employee mobilization (which may have been aided by social media interaction such as Blackberry messenger â€Å"BBM†, or possibly Facebook engagement) and possibly suggest how three thousand employees mobilized to the exclusion of their own union leaders, who purport not to have known about the impending strike action. . Customers who sense that company X is not engaging speedily and effectively to their queries or complaints may view the company’s indifference as a sign of it not being customer oriented and they may retaliate on social media platforms. The online conversation could inform new customers and other existing customers of the company’s level of degree of engagement as such impacting business performance. . 6 The Value Proposition- Application The HR Value Proposition will address the issues in the two examples cited above that will result in improve ment or a turnaround strategy. The systemic mind map model will seek to address the first two of the elements of Ulrich’s HR value proposition namely, 1. Knowing external business realities; and 2. Serving Internal and External Stakeholders. The reason for choosing the above two elements is because neo-socio dynamics (social media) suggests (1) a new and evolving external business reality in the form of online and mobile phone technology, its connectivity, user activity, and continued global growth in online social engagement and (2) ‘serving internal and external stakeholders’, who are now seemingly more connected and willing to voice their dissatisfaction, implies that HR needs to re-orientate its value proposition in light of how and where internal and xternal stakeholders are now having their conversations, which is online, in real time, sporadic, and transparent. As such the Value Proposition should aim to: * Create market value for investors by increasing intangibles. * Increases customer share by connecting with target customers. * Help line managers deliver strategy by building organisation capabilities. * Clarify and establish an employee value proposition and enhance individual abilities. * Improve the line manager’s ability to understand external business realities. HR Value Proposition Element| HR Transformation Criteria| HR Intervention| HR Value Proposition| Knowing the external businessRealities Article I. AND Article II. Serving externaland internal stakeholders| Create market value for investors by increasing intangibles. Increases customer share by connecting with target customers. Helps line managers deliver strategy by building organisation capabilities. Clarifies and establishes an employee value proposition and enhances individual abilities. Improve the line managers ability to understand external business realties| * The experience, level, function, previous management education, current challenges faced and demographic background of the potential participants needs to be considered when setting the objectives so that the programme is made relevant to the participant as well as the organisation. Leadership development needs may be carried out at this time which are linked to the strategic objectives and competencies needed for organisational success. * Based on the results of assessments they will be nominated to go on courses to close the competency gap. A suitable audience will be selected * An evaluation system and corresponding actions to reward success and improve on deficiencies preferably the Kirkpatrick Model in which to gauge self-development of leaders; their ability to contribute to the teams they lead; and which help them contribute to the business and strategic change. The basket of offerings from a develop ment perspective and leadership programme will be: 1. Emotional Intelligence 2. Resilience 3. Customer Orientation 4. Problem solving 5. Analytical Skills 6. Communication 7. Networking 8. Coaching 9. MentoringAnalytical skills. 10. Communication 11. Networking| 1. Clear focus on customer satisfaction and meeting the needs of the customer. 2. Improved staff retention 3. Lowered staff turnover 4. Increased productivity 5. Display of effective leadership and managerial skills 6. Effective problem solving and decision-making. 7. Analyse and integrate information and facts and demonstrate performance and change in behaviour 8. Make decisive and proactive decisions 9. Clear and detailed written communication skills. 10. Clear focus on networking with all key stakeholders. Table 1: HR Value Proposition Mind Map – Generic Organization X 3. 7 Conclusion The business world shapes leaders, pushing them to adapt and change in the face of social technology’s revolutionizing impact. Social media has connected, networked and empowered employees, customers, partners and investors and all stakeholders of the company globally. The change has been so rapid that leaders are increasingl y caught unprepared(Barry Libert and Sally Ourieff 2012). To succeed, and even just to survive, leaders must evolve as today’s technologies are changing. Social, mobile and cloud technologies force savvy businesses to become open, transparent, and inclusive organizations with stakeholders. Leaders must create new frameworks to integrate their understanding of social and mobile technologies into their leadership skills and management teams must recruit candidates equipped with these new capabilities. â€Å"Be Open, Be Transparent, Be Authentic† are the current leadership mantras, yet companies often push back according to Charlene Li (2011). Traditionally business is premised on the concept of control, yet the new world order (neo-socio dynamics) demands ‘openness’. ______________________________________________________ 3. 8 REFERENCES – SECTION 2 AND 3 1. Aughton P. 2005, Mapping the HR Value Proposition 2. Augie Ray May 11, 2010; (http://blogs. forrester. com/augie_ray/10-05-11-seven_things_your_organization_must_do_because_social_media) 3. Barron, C. 2012: A social media shock for Woollies, Sunday Times Bu siness Times Aug 19th 2012 pg6. 4. Barry Libert and Sally Ourieff 2012, Recruiting and Developing Great Teams in the Facebook Age , https://www. bluesteps. com/blog/Recruiting-and-Developing-Great-Teams-in-the-Facebook-Age. aspx (date accessed: July 28 2012) 5. Bass, B. M. Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behaviour. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2): 181-217. 6. http://dssresources. com/faq/index. php? action=artikel=225 7. http://www. ccl. org/leadership/pdf/research/creatingGovernmentLeaders. pdf 8. http://www. ccl. org/leadership/pdf/research/futureTrends. pdf 9. http://www. ehow. com/list_6713655_effects-autocratic-leadership. html 10. http://www. highwayafrica. com/media/Citizen_Journalism_and_Democracy_Book. pdf 11. Li, C (2011) Open Leadership: How Social Technology Can Transform How You Leadhttp://www. charleneli. om/open-leadership/ date accessed July 16th, 2012 12. Nichols, Thomas W.. Authentic transformational leadership and implicit leadership theories.. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital. library. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metadc9056/. Accessed July 16, 2012. 13. Transformational Leadership theory http://managementstudyguide. com/transformational-leadership. htm date accessed 16th July 2012 14. Ulrich D, 2005, HR’s New Mandate: Be a strategic player, http://hbswk. hbs. edu/archive/4861. html (date accessed: 30/07/2012) Images:  © 2012 (Twitter) Twitter Inc. , (Facebook) Facebook Corp, (YouTube) Google Inc. How to cite The Power of the Follower: the Arab Spring and Social Media, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Karma Essay Example

Karma Essay Karma Karma moves in two directions. If we act virtuously, the seed we plant will result in happiness. If we act non-virtuously suffering results, said Saying Mayhap. I believe that Karma does exist and if you act a certain way towards others and yourself it will reflect on whats going to happen to you in the future. I believe that all your actions have an outcome whether they are good or bad. I think that if an individual believes in Karma they think things through more carefully and have more of a responsibility to act respectful towards other people. We will write a custom essay sample on Karma specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Karma specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Karma specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Karma has had a direct impact in my life. Eve seen this directly affect me in areas of hard work, respect, honesty and friendship. A hard worker is one who is industrious and diligent in carrying out tasks and duties. I believe that my dad is a very hard worker and everything that he has done throughout his life has gotten him to where he is today. My dad is the type of person who doesnt give up and finishes what he starts without hesitation. In this situation, my dads Karma is obvious; he works hard for what he wants, he doesnt expect hinges to be handed to him and in return his hard work has provided a beautiful home, a cabin up north, and a secure life for our family and a future for him and my mom in their retirement. I admire his work ethic and know that everything he has earned is because of his hard work. As I grew up as a kid I was raised to have respect for my peers, authority, and myself. I learned that once you give respect to someone, they give you respect back. When I was in high school there seemed to be more drama than usual. It Just so happened that this group of girls didnt like me. They were always rude, said mean things and didnt think before they spoke and I was often hurt by their remarks. Although I wanted to say things back to them Just so they could hurt like they were hurting me, I remembered the saying, what goes around, comes around and I wanted to be the bigger person and not say anything to them at all and Just let it go. I believed in Karma enough Just to keep my negative words to myself and continue to work at being kind. I knew that one day they would feel the way that they made me feel and my hope was they would learn to respect people the way they should. Being an honest person is always the best thing to do. I was also raised to be honest about things and not lie. If I ever did anything wrong, I was told to admit my wrong doing, apologize, and move on. One day my mom had bought new coasters for our tables in the basement. She was so excited because they matched really well. I had my friend Adrian over and we were messing around and I had fell into the table and the coasters fell onto the cement and broke. I hurried up to get the pieces to horror them in the trash, but then I thought about it and decided that lying wasnt worth getting in trouble for because it would come back ten times worse. When I had told my mom the truth, she wasnt mad that I had broken them and she was proud of me for telling the truth. For a teenager friendship is one of the most important things. You always want someone who is going to be reliable, honest and trustworthy. I thought I had that type AT Eternal out I was proved wrong. One clay something Log napped to me Ana I had to tell one of my best friends about it. When I told her my secret I asked that she didnt tell anyone and of course she agreed and said yes, so I believed her. A few weeks later the secret I had told her came right back to me from other people. I felt betrayed because I had so much trust into this person and she told people about what happened to me. I decided that I couldnt trust her anymore so I wasnt going to be her friend. I believe that Karma affected her because she lost a friend over something she knew she shouldnt have done. Also because now people know that he is not very trustworthy so it will take her a long time to earn anyones trust. I believe that Karma will affect everyone at some point in their lives. Although many people believe that is it the underhanded people or dishonest people that get what they want but I disagree and believe that they will get what they deserve. People who lie and cheat the system will always get caught. People, who treat others badly, will also get treated that way and people who disrespect others will inevitably be disrespected. Nothing is ever free or easy and Karma can either be your friend or your enemy.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

How to Handle Awkward Situations at Work

How to Handle Awkward Situations at Work It’s always nice to get as friendly as you can with the people you’ll spend so much of your waking adult life working alongside. But building personal relationships at work can create a few sticky situations. Here are a few of them, and what to do when you find yourself in trouble. 1.  When You Get Promoted and Your Coworker Doesn’tYou get one, your friend in the same position doesn’t. Now there’s resentment and a new power dynamic to negotiate. You can’t share your work drama with the same abandon anymore, because you’re in different roles. The kind of belly-aching you’re accustomed to is no longer appropriate. Also be prepared to withstand some initial resentment.Either way, it’s best to talk about it once out in the open. Be proactive. Address the aspects of your relationship that have to change according to your work functions, but emphasize what aspects of your friendship do not have to change. Check in, be humble, and be honest. It’ll help you both navigate the new situation if you’re still on the same page and can express some solidarity.2. When  You Become Friends With Your BossYou and your boss have become close outside of work. You get in a fight. It makes things†¦ awkward at the office. This is normal. All friends fight. The only tricky bit is not compromising either of your jobs. Keep things civil and professional, and try not to be too defensive. If it’s a minor thing, take a bit of distance, cool off, then send an olive branch email to smooth it over. If it’s major, make it clear that it will not impact your daily office routines, but make a plan to chat outside the office after work.3. When You want Skip Out on a Social EventYour coworker wants you to double date! Fun, right!? But you don’t want to. That’s totally fine. You’re under no obligation to do so. Trouble is, turning it down can be a little tricky. You’ll want t o be as firm as possible, without being mean. When in doubt, try to downshift. Say you’re super busy and would prefer to have some one-on-one time, maybe coffee or lunch! Eventually, she’ll get the hint.4. When You’re  Fighting With Your CoworkerThis is the same as fighting with your boss, just that the stakes are slightly lower. Though you also have the potential to damage the other’s reputation in the office. Be careful not let the fight spill over into the work day and make either of you act unprofessionally. Otherwise, the same rules apply.5.When  You Don’t Want to Make Friends With EveryoneYou’re close with a couple of your coworkers, but not another. You’re under no obligation to let this other coworker into your clique. People have the right to chose their friends and you are not required to be friends with people just because you work together. But do be sensitive to the feelings of the person you are not including. Avoid talking about all the fun stuff you and your pals are going to do in front of this other coworker. It’s the kind way to behave.6.  When You Don’t Fit in at WorkIf you’re the one on the outside of the cool kids clique at work, don’t worry. It doesn’t say anything about you necessarily. And you certainly shouldn’t take it personally. Be warm and civil with your coworkers, and then divert your friendship-forging attention elsewhere. Make sure you maintain an active and fulfilling social life outside of the office so you don’t get discouraged by not being part of the crowd. The upside here is that you’ll focus more on your work and not be as easily distracted by office banter.7. When You Overhear Hurtful GossipYou overhear your coworkers talking about you behind your back. Resist the temptation to throttle them. You don’t have to confront them, but you shouldn’t hide and pretend you didn’t hear either. Take t ime to cool off and give them the space to do the adult thing and apologize. If they don’t, they’re probably not worth talking to.8. When Your Coworkers are Mooching Off of YouAre you always paying for the coffee trip? The happy hour round? Rather than quietly resenting this state of affairs, give your coworkers the benefit of the doubt and the opportunity to set things right. Try saying, â€Å"Hey, you mind grabbing this round? I got the last few.† Or something equally casual. It’s awkward the first couple of times, but you’ll be glad you got better at asking. It’s better than slowly going broke!

Monday, March 2, 2020

How Much Time to Spend Studying in College

How Much Time to Spend Studying in College Theres no right way to study in college. Even students who have the same majors and take the same classes wont need to spend the same amount of time on coursework because everyone has their own way of learning. That being said, theres a common rule of thumb students and professors use to determine how much time to allocate for studying in college: For each hour you spend in class, you should spend two to three hours studying outside of class. How Should I Study? Of course, that outside of class studying can take on different forms: You might take the traditional approach to studying by sitting in your room, poring over a textbook or reading assignment. Or perhaps youll spend time online or in the library  further researching topics your professor mentioned in class. Maybe youll have a lot of lab work to do  or a group project that requires meeting other students after class. The point is studying can take many forms. And, of course, some classes require students to work outside of class a lot more time than others. Focus more on what sort of studying will help you complete your necessary coursework and get the most out of your education, rather than trying to meet a specific study-hours quota. Why Should I Track How Much I Study? While prioritizing the quality over the quantity of your study time is more likely to help you accomplish your academic goals, its smart to keep track of how much time you spend doing it. First of all, knowing how much time to spend studying in college can help you gauge if youre spending enough time on your academics. For example, if youre not performing well on exams or assignments - or you get negative feedback from a professor - you can reference the amount of time youve spent studying to determine the best way to proceed: You could try spending more time studying for that class to see if it improves your performance. Conversely, if youve already invested a lot of time in that course, perhaps your poor grades are an indication its not an area of study that suits you. Beyond that, tracking how you study can also help you with time management, a skill all college students need to develop. (Its pretty handy in the real world, too.) Ideally, understanding your out-of-class workload can help you avoid cramming for exams or pulling all-nighters to meet an assignment deadline. Those approaches are not only stressful, but theyre often not very productive either. The better you understand how much time it takes you to  engage with and comprehend the course material, the more likely you are to reach your academic goals. Think of it this way: Youve already invested a lot of time and money going to class, so you might as well figure out how much time you need to do everything necessary for getting that diploma.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Strategy Formulation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Strategy Formulation - Essay Example The task is acknowledged as essential to enable taking track of sales leads.The areas that can be changed are as follows: (1) determining the scope of the assistant’s job. It could be that there are more important responsibilities that need to be urgently taken cared of and that taking phone messages were regarded as insignificant (unless explicitly communicated); (2) the location of the telephone might also be far from the assistant’s work place making it tedious to take messages, as such, putting the telephone near the assistant’s work place would help in taking the needed phone messages; (3) use of advanced technology could help (like using a headphone where the assistant could immediately talk to clients while doing other tasks); and (4) assigning other staff or personnel to take phone message, if and when possible. The strategy would therefore really depend on the root causes of the assistant’s inability to take phone message. If it stems from structu ral causes, the strategy entails changing the location of the phone or applying advanced digital peripherals that would assist in multi-tasking. If the cause of the inability stems from personal traits , the strategy could entail hiring another assistant who would be competent in doing the task. If this is not possible, the assistant could be trained to do the task, as required. Finally, if the cause of work overload, the task should be delegated to other staff who could be relied on to take phone messages, as needed. Â